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  1. #21
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    Stem Problems
    Stem Breakage - Everyone from time to time has had this problem or will. This is when your stem is broken. Stem breaks can come from a number of things: training, dropping something on it, animals, weather. No matter how it happened the most important thing is to not panic.
    Solution - Fixing this is not really a problem. Splint it with something and tape it in place. Marijuana has a great ability to come back even after a stem break. Give her a week or so to recover before she will start to grow again. And be more careful next time!





    Misc things to know!!

    When your humidity is low your leaves can become shriveled. Using humidity around 40-60% is fine for vegging and flowering.

    If your plants are stretching than it can be caused by a few things. Not enough light, or it’s the wrong kind of light. Stay away from incadesant bulbs they produce more heat than good. Same goes for halogens, they are worthless and cause more heat than anything else. Instead get a HPS, MH, Fluros or some compact fluros!
    Hps will keep your plant short and stubby while cool fluros will keep your plant bushy, while soft white will keep your plant tall,Having a mixture will have a tal and bushy plant! Nothing wrong with having mixed spectrums!
    Or just go grow outside and save energy!!


    Cloning Problems

    A lot of times clones will yellow, when trying to root, some yellowing is alright, but if the yellowing is taking over and roots have not shown, you need to check to make sure the growing medium is close and tight to the stem. Allowing any air to get down into the hole will dry out the lower stem and can delay roots growing. Also making sure the medium is moist, but not saturated is important. Lighting does not have to be to close when they are un-rooted, after showing roots is when it’s important and the light needs to be closer.
    Plain tap water that is ph adjusted is just fine till the clones have rooted. Giving any nutrients will kill them until they have been rooted, even then when giving clones nutrients for the first time needs to be a little bit weak.
    If you are using a dome for cloning, you want to make sure if you do mist your plants, do not mist them heavily, you don’t want to spoil your plants, misting to heavy will delay rooting as well, you want your plants to grow roots to go get the water, they will root more slower if the water is readily given to them. Not to mention when you mist them a lot, your plants will have to be “weaned” from there dome. Your plants will droop quickly if taken out of the dome after they have been rooted. In order to stop this, do not mist them so much. If you are having problems with droopy clones, you may want to try an anti droop spray. This will help the plants stop drooping as bad. You can kill clones by not weaning them out of the dome or cause stress and stunt them. I have my own cloning method that stops the weaning process while using a dome, So remember don’t soil your clones by misting them daily, making sure your mediums you are using for cloning are moist enough to last through the cloning process, but not saturated. If the temperature in the medium where the roots are at is under 65 degrees, you'll want to use a heating mat. Temps of around 75 to 80 are optimal. Anything over 80F will cause transpiration and dry out your medium to quickly and roots will not have a chance of growing. Colder temps cause roots to slow causing yellowing in the leaves and stunting. Yellowing on the leaves of a clone is not always a sign of cold temperatures, there could be other problems like medium being too saturated, roots being delayed from cloning method, water temperatures being to warm if using a bubble cloner. Leaves that turn yellow on clone’s means it is using stored nutrients from the leaves to help it try to root. Clones that become cold before having a chance to root will less likely root at all.
    Some strains are more difficult to clone than others, some can also root faster and some can take much longer. It seems indica dominant strains have a much easier time cloning, where sativa dominant strains are pickier and require “tweaking” your cloning method if you want to get a higher success rate.



    Yellowing leaves on cuttings

    When unrooted clones start to yellow it means they are either not touching the rooting medium good enough, to much co2. The vast majority of the time, an unrooted cutting will begin to yellow some of it's leaves, starting with it's largest oldest leaves, because it is too close to the lights and it needs to be moved farther away. Some yellowing is normal just as the cutting begins rooting and can be a sign of the cutting using it's oldest leaves as a food source while it is forming new roots. Plain tap water that is ph adjusted is just fine until the clones have rooted. Giving any ferts will kill them untill they have been rooted.



    Seedlings Stretching

    If your plants are stretching than it can be caused by a few things. Not enough light, Light not close enough, or it’s the wrong kind of light. Stay away from incandescent bulbs they produce more heat than good. Same goes for halogens; they are worthless and cause more heat than anything else. Instead get a HPS, (High Pressure Sodium) MH, (Metal-Halide) Florescent Tubes, or some compact florescent!
    HPS will keep your plant short and stubby while cool florescent tubes and compact florescent (blue spectrum) and MH will keep your plant bushy, while soft white will keep your plant tall, having a mixture will have tall and bushy plants! Nothing wrong with having mixed spectrums!
    Or if you can safely, just go grow outside and save energy!!


    If you are running in hydro its good to change your water every 2 weeks TOPS to keep out bacteria growth and to keep your plants with a good supply of fresh water.
    "There he goes. One of God's own prototypes. A high-powered mutant of some kind never even considered for mass production. Too weird to live, and too rare to die." Hunter S. Thompson
    Overgrow Original | Sp3cialSt3v3420 | 2001 - 2006 | Overgrow The World
    TSD OG 2011-2013 | Hippie420 | Former Forums Manager

  2. #22
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    A good rule to go by for how much PPM each part of your plants growth has is as follows:

    (This is just a guideline and in different situations the ppm would need to be changed)

    Seedlings should be around 50-150 PPM
    Unrooted clones to be around 100-350 PPM
    small plants to be around 400-800 PPM
    large plants to be around 900-1800 PPM
    Last week of flowering use plain water.


    If you see dark or patchy spots on your leaves, that could mean you have mold. Check fordark patchy areas on the leaves and if you do have mold, lower the humidity and get a better ventilation setup going to prevent further occurrences.
    And most important.. KEEP YOUR GARDEN CLEAN!!!

    PPM = parts per million
    EC = electric conductivaty
    TDS = total desolved solids
    (information provided by syko2)


    PPM--EC conversion Chart

    Re-printed with Permission from Jorge Cervantes;

    EC Hanna Eutech Truncheon CF
    ms/cm 0.5 ppm 0.64 ppm 0.70 ppm 0
    0.1 50 ppm 64 ppm 70 ppm 1
    0.2 100 ppm 128 ppm 140 ppm 2
    0.3 150 ppm 192 ppm 210 ppm 3
    0.4 200 ppm 256 ppm 280 ppm 4
    0.5 250 ppm 320 ppm 350 ppm 5
    0.6 300 ppm 384 ppm 420 ppm 6
    0.7 350 ppm 448 ppm 490 ppm 7
    0.8 400 ppm 512 ppm 560 ppm 8
    0.9 450 ppm 576 ppm 630 ppm 9
    1.0 500 ppm 640 ppm 700 ppm 10
    1.1 550 ppm 704 ppm 770 ppm 11
    1.2 600 ppm 768 ppm 840 ppm 12
    1.3 650 ppm 832 ppm 910 ppm 13
    1.4 700 ppm 896 ppm 980 ppm 14
    1.5 750 ppm 960 ppm 1050 ppm 15
    1.6 800 ppm 1024 ppm 1120 ppm 16
    1.7 850 ppm 1088 ppm 1190 ppm 17
    1.8 900 ppm 1152 ppm 1260 ppm 18
    1.9 950 ppm 1216 ppm 1330 ppm 19
    2.0 1000 ppm 1280 ppm 1400 ppm 20
    2.1 1050 ppm 1334 ppm 1470 ppm 21
    2.2 1100 ppm 1408 ppm 1540 ppm 22
    2.3 1150 ppm 1472 ppm 1610 ppm 23
    2.4 1200 ppm 1536 ppm 1680 ppm 24
    2.5 1250 ppm 1600 ppm 1750 ppm 25
    2.6 1300 ppm 1664 ppm 1820 ppm 26
    2.7 1350 ppm 1728 ppm 1890 ppm 27
    2.8 1400 ppm 1792 ppm 1960 ppm 28
    2.9 1450 ppm 1856 ppm 2030 ppm 29
    3.0 1500 ppm 1920 ppm 2100 ppm 30
    3.1 1550 ppm 1984 ppm 2170 ppm 31
    3.2 1600 ppm 2048 ppm 2240 ppm 32

    There are three conversion factors which various manufacturers use for displaying ppm's...

    USA 1 ms/cm (EC 1.0 or CF 10) = 500 ppm
    European 1 ms/cm (EC 1.0 or CF 10) = 640 ppm
    Australian 1 ms/cm (EC 1.0 or CF 10) = 700 ppm

    For example,

    Hanna, Milwaukee 1 ms/cm (EC 1.0 or CF 10) = 500 ppm
    Eutech 1 ms/cm (EC 1.0 or CF 10) = 640 ppm
    Truncheon 1 ms/cm (EC 1.0 or CF 10) = 700 ppm


    Water

    Yes, water does play a huge role when you are trying to grow healthy plants not only does our plants need water, but there are many different kinds of water to use, there is bottled water, Tap water, Reverse Osmosis water (RO) and Distilled.
    Out of all these different kinds of water, there’s one thing you want to make absolutely sure of and that is making sure any kinds of these water’s do NOT have sodium in them.
    Sodium will completely lock out any nutrients you have given your plants single handedly. Sodium is the first thing plants take in when taking in nutrients and when this happens, a build up of salts will happen and lock out nutrients in your soil/hydro setup. The salts stay built up in the soil. Using water that has sodium, like from bottled water or tap water, or from a water softener is what you want to stay away from. If your home has a water softener, then you must either buy bottled water, either from a fill station, or make a bypass valve before the pipe gets to the water softener. Plants suffering from sodium toxicity show a vast amount of problems, depending on how resilient your plant strains are, and how healthy your plants are, plays a great deal in the final outcome. When the plants are young is when they are the most affected, under 3 weeks of age is when the damage can really be done. Sodium causes stunting droopiness and most of the time, nitrogen, magnesium and calcium are the nutrients to be locked out first, twisting and discoloration on the leaves, mostly lower to middle is where it starts. They will always have a droopy look to them even when your soil is kind of dry; the leaves never stay perky when there is too much sodium in the system (Soil/Hydro). Sometimes your plants will not recover and they will not grow, usually it’s the younger plants less than 3 weeks of age. In order to fix this problem, it’s simple you need to flush your soil out with a lot of clean sodium free water.
    Flush with as much clean water as you can 2 x the amount to the size of your pot. So if you have a 2 gallon size pot; use 4 gallons of water to flush it out. If you have hydro system flush out your system with clean water, let it sit for about 15 min. and then flush it out and put more clean water in and apply your nutrients, or whatever you had in your setup.


    Hard water

    Hard water causes nutrients to not be absorbed properly in your plants, in order to find out if you have hard water you can by test strips from a pool store or hardware store, strips will tell you ph, hard water and other things that may be in your water.
    Anything over 200 is considered hard water, but it’s the higher numbers like 350 and higher is what you want to be alerted about. If you do have hard water you may want to consider installing a reverse osmosis system. Reverses osmosis system cleans the water, but also removes calcium and magnesium from the water. High levels of calcium and magnesium is what contributes to hard water. If you choose to use a reverse osmosis, you will need to supplement your plants with a little more calcium and magnesium.


    Hermaphrodite Pollination

    Yes, your female plants can turn into males! The factor is strain induced and or your growing environment conditions. What some seed companies wont tell you when you are growing there feminized strains are; that in order to achieve 100% female success rate, you have to be growing in prime conditions, that is with humidity, you can not add to much water, nutrients, light and such. Feminized seeds are not the only kind that turn into male and female, ANY strain and any plant can turn into a hermaphrodite. If your plants keep turning into hermaphrodites, there are some things you can do; first you need to see if the strain you are growing is prone to turning hermaphrodite. If you are not growing a strain you know about, say you are growing bag seed; you do not know anything about what kind it is, so the best thing to do is not grow it and get some different beans. Next thing you need to do is make sure your growing conditions are good, fresh air, proper nutrients, not to high not to low, your plants have enough light, and making sure your flowering room does not have any light leaks. Light Leaks can cause the plants to become hermaphrodites. Cannabis plants can see the tiniest amount of light, so making absolutely sure your flowering room has no light leaks is also a factor. If your plants have turned into hermaphrodites and pollinated your plants, there is nothing you can do about it, those beans the plant produces will carry the hermaphrodite trait and if you grow them out you may be right back to where you are. You can in fact grow female plants from hermaphrodite seeds, but they are going to be very unstable.
    What you want to make sure though is, when you put your other plants into flowering, you want to make absolutely sure your room is washed down and everything that was in the room be washed down as well, growing equipment, hoses, nutrient bottles, pots, everything. You don’t want pollen that stayed behind to pollinate your girls this time around. Washing down everything with watered down bleach or soap will prevent old pollen left on walls and equipment from re-pollinating your plants.
    "There he goes. One of God's own prototypes. A high-powered mutant of some kind never even considered for mass production. Too weird to live, and too rare to die." Hunter S. Thompson
    Overgrow Original | Sp3cialSt3v3420 | 2001 - 2006 | Overgrow The World
    TSD OG 2011-2013 | Hippie420 | Former Forums Manager

  3. #23
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    Stem Canker (Stem Rot)

    Stem cankers are what the name is, they form on stems from a fungus similar to white and yellow leaf spot. Weather can affect the way stem cankers can live; wet humid weather is what makes this fungus thrive. Canker fungus is caused and entered the same white and leaf spot fungus enters the plants, it enters through an open cut, wound, pruned wound, or pest infestation that has caused damage by eating leaves or chewing on the stem’s or stalks and can be transferred through rain. It can also get in through susceptible plants that have been wounded through environmental factors like animal attacks, pruning, LST (Low Stress Training), and using cutting utensils that are not sanitary that may have fungus or bacteria on them. Damage to the plant occurs in the form of a yellowish-brown discoloration on the lower portion of the stalk. Later, the leaves turn yellow and fall off, and the plant dries out and dies.They form mostly on the stems, but severe cases spotting starts to form on the leaves from internal tissue being cut of nutrients and water. In between nodes is where stem cankers start to form, and move up the plant, around the 3rd, 4th and 5th node is where it will mainly affects the plants. Stems will have brown lesions; eventually have a dark reddish-brown sunken canker in the stem. Sometimes if severe the wound may reopen and appear split in the middle of the area of the wound on the stem and can also create a buldge. The lesions can extend up the plant over 3 or 4 nodes, once this happens the plant starts to wilt from vascular uptake being cut. This gets confused with root rot when the plant starts to wilt, and leaves turn yellowish brown and or spots, because the stem canker does not show itself yet once this starts to happen. Once the stem canker has been observed and if not treated, the leaves will start to wilt with yellow, white and brown spots, similar to white and yellow leaf spot. When plants are affected by this, the plant is more susceptible to more fungus and viral infections, from air borne spores.


    Prevent and Control

    Preventing stem cankers is about the same way other fungus problems, making sure you treat wounds to your plant with H202, making sure your plants are free of pest’s and if you use tools to LST (low stress training) your plants pruning, and training, make sure all tools are sterilized before and after using them. Spraying your plant with fungicides in the months or times this fungus spreads. It’s very important that you catch this fungus before it gets to bad, once the damage has been done to the plant; the only way to get rid of this is to chop the plant down and treat the area that has been infected. Planting other plants near and or around this area can and will re-affect other plants when a new season starts.
    Once your plant does have this, using fungicides until it is gone is crucial; if the canker has worsened foliar feeding is a must to help keep the plants vigor, strength and stamina in fighting the fungus. Stem cankers take over by slowly reducing the plants uptake and thus takes over the susceptibility of the plant and the fungus then takes over and worsens more quickly. Using anyone of these products will help control or eliminate stem cankers. (If the plant is to bad, nothing can save it and the plant must be cut down and tools sanitized to stop the spread of the fungus.) (Note: When using chemical and or organic control methods, do not spray the buds, and for health and safety reasons, stay away from spraying around the buds if all possible.)


    Physan 20
    TR-11000 Pyrethrum
    Garden Disease Control
    Multi Purpose Fungicide
    Top Spin

    Safer's Garden Fungicide
    Concern Copper Soap Fungicide
    Guardian Angel
    Serenade Garden Disease Control OMRI
    Safer 3-in1 Garden Spray OMRI
    Sulfur Vaporizer
    Organocide
    SM-90
    Any fungicide containing lime sulphur
    Concern Copper Soap Fungicide


    Fusarium Wilt

    The United States released this fungus in an area; it later had devastating effects on cannabis plants even after winter had passed it stayed in the soil. Seedlings that were planted were killed several years after the fungus was released. This fungus can be air borne and transmitted like other fungus and pathogens, it gets in through susceptible plants that have been wounded through environmental factors like animal attacks, pruning, LST (Low Stress Training), pest infestation and using cutting utensils that are not sanitary that may have fungus or bacteria on them. Fusarium wilt causes internal damage to vascular lines inside the plant and blocks the plants ability to carry water and nutrients. Symptoms included wilting of the plant, leaves becoming necrotic and yellowing wilting of the leaves while the yellowing leaves may look like a nutrient deficiency, this is clearly a mask, with Fusarium wilt, leaves will yellow and stay on the plant, where with a nitrogen deficiency the leaves will yellow and fall off. While not affecting the roots, it does affect inside the plant cell walls, inside the plants walls will reveal a red brown color inside the tissue. Stems will change color from normal green and purple hue, to a dark purple to blackish color. This pathogen can get confused with root rot, because the symptoms this pathogen shows are nearly the same as root rot, but roots are not affected. This clogging effect inside is what causes the external symptoms. While this fungus is traveling inside the plant, the toxins spread to uninfected areas and causing the clogging effect internally, these toxins is what causes the other un infected tissue to start to show the 2ndary problems, which are slow wilting of the leaves, stem collapse, stem discoloration and overall droopiness (as if the plant is dry and had no water) to parts of the plant, even if they get plenty of water. This fungus is a real killer to cannabis plants, any remaining plants that are survived can be stunted. Fusarium Wilt thrives in warm moist temperatures, which is why southern states have Fusarium Wilt the worst.


    Prevent and Control

    Fusarium Wilt is by far one of the hardest things for cannabis to overcome, if it ever does overcome it. Your plant health, environment and strain have a lot to do with weather or not Fusarium wilt will take over your plants. This pathogen mainly affects cannabis and hemp family, but can affect other plants but does not show the damaging effect it has on cannabis, like it does on other kinds of plants. This pathogen was breed specifically to attack wild cannabis plants and growers who grow there plants outdoors’. There is no form of organic control for this type, reason for this is, because the fungus is so strong and not susceptible to much of anything unless you get it right when it starts, if you do not get it in time, it thrives in the plants and consumes and kills the plants. There is only a few ways to control this fungus, one is to fumigate the area you are growing in killing the pathogen in the soil while it is dormant, so when you grow in this area again, your plants are much less likely to get it, the only other way your plants could get this if not from the soil, is from airborne spores get in through open wounds on your plants leaves, stems and stalks. Plants that produced seeds when it was infected with Fusarium wilt should not be used, as the pathogen stays dormant on the seed and attacks it when the seedling emerges and causing the “damping off” effect and thus killing the seedling before it even has a chance to grow it’s real first set of leaves. Acidic soil helps boost Fusarium wilt. Stay away from acidic soils .Counteract this by using dolomite lime, or green sand Using potassium and calcium enriched organic nutrients can help fight off and prevent Fusarium wilt, excessive amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus can speed up Fusarium wilt.

    If your plant gets this it will surely die, the only thing you can do is try to reduce the destruction by foliar feeding areas that are not infected, cut off infected areas discard them away from your growing areas and treat the wound with h202 (Hydrogen Peroxide).
    Making sure you clean your tools afterwards is important. Treating with fungicides will not work in controlling this.


    Pictures below show Fusarium Wilt infection.
    (Photo Credit: Hort)
    53.jpg 54.jpg
    Attached Images Attached Images
    • File Type: jpg 55.jpg (72.2 KB, 6238 views)
    "There he goes. One of God's own prototypes. A high-powered mutant of some kind never even considered for mass production. Too weird to live, and too rare to die." Hunter S. Thompson
    Overgrow Original | Sp3cialSt3v3420 | 2001 - 2006 | Overgrow The World
    TSD OG 2011-2013 | Hippie420 | Former Forums Manager

  4. #24
    OG/TSD Refugee
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    Powdery Mildew

    Mildew spores can be brought into the grow room through air ventilation into your grow room, your cloths, pets and be carried by animals outdoors. and land on the plant infecting other parts of the plant, buds, stems, stalks and leaves, also spores can land on indoor grow room walls, tubes, growing equipment, hoods, ballast’s, cords and etc. Spores can remain dormant until environment factors trigger it, like high humidity and cool temperatures, poor air circulation. Powdery mildew in vegetative growth is much easier to rid than in the later stages of flowering. Night time temperatures and moisture triggers spores to be released. The mildew eventually covers and coats the plant thus reducing the process of photosynthesis. If left untreated powdery mildew will infect all plants in your garden and coat your plants in flour like substance and cause leaves to “suffocate” Yellow and die off. If your plants are in flowering, depending how far into flowering, your buds will eventually become infected and will not be able to be used. Buds will have a stale moist smell and will be coated with a white powdery substance that can’t be removed no matter what you do. Very early detection in flowering plants that have powdery mildew is extremely important, the longer you wait in flowering the more impossible it gets to eradicate this, due to this, bud size gets bigger in flowering and having high humidity temperatures over 65% can trigger active spores to start, not only powdery mildew, but triggers other problems from it, like bud rot. Not only will you have lower yield, but you won’t have any buds, due to the fact mold has crippled your harvest.
    Strains vary in susceptibility to molds, just like other pathogens and nutrient requirements and care.


    Prevent and Control

    Symptoms of your plants having powdery mildew include: white blotches of furry stuff and white spots or splotches that you can wipe off, having humidity that is over 65%, also starts on darker areas of the plant and spreads to the top. Darker areas on your plant that do not get a lot of light will start to show this first, then when spores become active it spreads to everything. The longer you let it go the harder it will be to eradicate, late flowering plants that have this are extremely hard to get rid of, due to bud density thicker in late flowering plants, because of this the mildew attacks the buds which you can’t cure mildew once it affects the buds.(also known as Bud Rot)Plants that are stressed from environment factors, or fighting pest’s will be taken over more by this mold, due to the fact it’s already fighting problems. If you see your stressed plants getting it first, try to isolate the plant and bring down humidity, better air ventilation and or negative air pressure grow room. If you have mildew with your fans running, you will need to take them down and clean them as the fans can spread spores around the room. You will need to wash down everything in your indoor grow room, spores land on everything, so everything needs to be washed with mild hot water and bleach solution. Removing infected leaves from the grow room is critical, carefully removing them and trying to not knock spores into the air is a challenge. Applying a bag over infected leaves and tying it shut then removing it helps out with not knocking up spores in the air. Making sure you use h202 on stems that have open wounds from leaves that was removed. DO NOT water when lights are going to be going out, doing this keeps water on the plants soil and causes higher humidity levels, this goes for foliar feeding. Water plants when lights first come on or there is at least 5 hours left of lights on. You want to reduce the amount of humidity as possible if your levels of RH are high, you want to keep your humidity levels around 40 to 50%, and anything over 60% is going to trigger problems. Also keeping plants spaced apart allowing maximum air flow in between plants will help minimize plant to plant infection. Using a dehumidifier can greatly reduce humidity issues. Using a meter that tells your grow room conditions like temperature, RH and time can help combat your problems, by keeping track before and after you water can tell you how much if any your humidity can rise after changes made to the grow room. Sulphur Burner is another way to prevent and kill powdery mildew by vaporizing spores in the air. (Do not apply sulfur when air temperature is near or over 90°F) Controlling your mildew outdoors can be somewhat of a challenge, you can’t control outdoor temperatures, or environmental factors, Using Vapor Gard,Wilt Pruf sprayed over the leaves can prevent infection’s.
    You will need to treat your plants with various organic and chemical controls. This list will work for indoor and outdoor growers in killing and preventing Powdery Mildew. Outdoor growers can use Organics List below to help prevent Powdery Mildew of starting, even after it has started using anything below will help kill it off. (Note: When using chemical and or organic control methods, do not spray the buds, and for health and safety reasons, stay away from spraying around the buds if all possible.)



    AQ10
    Serenade
    Plant Shield
    Garden Disease Control
    Fungicide containing Lime, Sulphur

    JMS Stylet Oil
    Saf-T-Side Spray Oil
    Sunspray Ultra-Fine Spray Oil
    Neem Oil
    Neem 2
    Kaligreen
    Safer Garden Fungicide
    Concern Copper Soap Fungicide
    Guardian Angel
    Serenade Garden Disease Control OMRI
    Safer 3-in1 Garden Spray OMRI
    Sulfur Vaporizer
    Organocide
    SM-90
    Malatox
    Garden Sulphur
    Sulphur Burner
    Sodium Bicarbonate
    Chi
    Mother Nature's Karanja Oil
    Concern Copper Soap Fungicide


    Picture below shows Powdery Mildew
    (Photo Credit: Beach Stoned)
    55.jpg
    "There he goes. One of God's own prototypes. A high-powered mutant of some kind never even considered for mass production. Too weird to live, and too rare to die." Hunter S. Thompson
    Overgrow Original | Sp3cialSt3v3420 | 2001 - 2006 | Overgrow The World
    TSD OG 2011-2013 | Hippie420 | Former Forums Manager

  5. #25
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    Damping-Off


    Damping-Off is a fungus that is in soil mixtures, it attacks seeds and seedlings before and after it emerges from the shell. Seedlings that get attacked by this fungus usually die, considering the plant doesn’t have a fighting chance nor a system setup to help fight the fungus. A range of growth stages the plant can be attacked, up to 8 sets of true leaves, or 3 leaf nodes. Leaves, roots, and stems can be affected. Damping-off can be easily confused by excessive fertilization (Nutrient Burn), high levels of salts from either water or nutrient solution build up, excessive heat or cold, excessive or insufficient soil moisture. The Cotyledons show on the soil surface can whither and die or healthy looking seedlings may suddenly fall over. Infection first starts right below the soil line; once attacked, the seedling and vegetative stage plants will start to rot, lower part of the stem will be soft, brown and or leaves will turn purplish hue and can yellow, brown and then fall over or shrivel up; can be any one of these or show all symptoms. Seedlings, or vegetative stage plants then can start to fall over from stem being so soft and starting to rot inside out, one item contributes to this problem is over watering, putting seedlings, or small plants into a big pot; when you water the soil down lower soaks up excess water and ends up sitting in the middle to bottom part of the soil in the pot. When this happens fungus begins to build up due to them not having a deep enough or a big root system to absorb all the excess water, then it ends up turning into damping-off. Later stages of damping-off in vegetative stage seedling, the leaves will droop and turn yellow, as if the plant was over watered. Stems will be severely weaken and may fall over from being under developed and skinny. Older plants can build up a resistance to damping-off, but if they do not, older plants show long skinny stems, stunted roots, and stem discoloration. The Soil that is rich in nitrogen, r rich mixture, and soggy soils, soil that stay wet for long periods, and warm soil or temperatures. Even hydroponics systems can get damping-off; mediums that stay too saturated, you have less likely chance of getting damping-off in hydroponics systems.

    Prevent and Control

    In order to help control damping off or preventing it you should try to start seedlings in “starter cups”, drinking cups you get from the store; putting drainage holes in the bottom of the cups is extremely important in helping avoid damping-off, allowing excessive water drain so the bottom half of the mixture will not stay wet.
    This is why cups are great for starter seedlings, you can still over water, but your chances of getting damping off are much less than that of a seedling put into a big pot with lots of soil. Making sure you have holes and a good amount of perlite in your mixture helps greatly, I always recommend cups having drainage holes. Putting seeds into the soil at a low depth helps out, just putting it an inch or 2 at the most helps avoid the fungus.
    Avoid starting planting in rich soil mixtures, not only can you burn them when they emerge out of the soil, but too much nitrogen can lack root growth and aggravate damping-off. Try using a seed starter mixture, not watering heavily, and avoid watering everyday, seedlings in cups should only be watered a bit every 2 days, seedlings with 2 to 3 sets of leaves in cups can start to be watered more heavily where water starts to drip out the drainage holes, only then you should water like this every 3 days. Over watering is one of the biggest causes of
    damping-off. Also using soiless-mixtures like peat growing mixed with other stuff can help deterrent it. If you decide to get mostly soil with peat moss, you must make sure there is dolomite lime added to adjust the p H, otherwise you will have ph issues that can lead to locking out nutrients that are in the soil, but not able to be absorbed because the ph is off. Using sterile soil helps greatly, Allow great air flow and circulation in your grow room, allow the surface to dry before watering again, using moisture meters, or sticking your finger down in the soil near the edge of the pot to test for wetness down in the soil. Testing the soil near the edge of the pot helps to avoid bothering root development.
    Once Seedlings that have already emerged from there seed shell and end up getting affected by damping off has a very high chance they will not survive and there is nothing you can do about it, by the time it shows in seedlings, it will already be to far gone. Using a fungicide on the seed before putting it into soil mixtures helps to avoid post emerge damping-off. Vegetative stage plants with a few sets of leaves has a better chance of fighting it off, using a fungicide can help depending on how far along the fungus has spread. Using any of these products below can help avoid or kill damping-off. (If using on seedlings or seeds, use organic based fungicides.) Chemical control should only be used on older plants, not seedlings.



    Physan 20
    Garden Disease Control
    Multi Purpose Fungicide
    Top Spin
    Captan
    Thiram
    Apron

    Safer's Garden Fungicide
    Concern Copper Soap Fungicide
    Guardian Angel
    Serenade Garden Disease Control OMRI
    Safer 3-in1 Garden Spray OMRI
    Organocide
    SM-90



    Root Rot
    What causes root rot? Low Oxygen levels. (DO) Desolved Oxigen. Temp's are the main reason for root rot, Low temps will lower the DO levels and high temps will cause low DO levels. Keeping temps between 65 to 72 will allow MAX DO levels or max o2 for roots. (Thank you so much for the information syko2! has provided above!)
    Over watering also causes root rot, Root Rot infects parts of the roots, which then spread infecting the whole roots causing death, Root Rot can be caused by to high of temps in hydro as well as over watering. Not enough drainage in your soil can cause Root Rot, even signs of it looking over watered, because the soil holds moisture to long for the roots to dry out. So these 3 things are all connected together. The main one that causes everything is over watering. Once you find out you have root rot, depending on how bad the problem is, you can add H202( Hydrogen Peroxide) with your water or hydro setup to kill the bacteria caused from root rot. If the plant is severely taken over by it, there are only a few things you can do, cut off the roots affected by it depending on if its hair roots or tap roots, use H202 mixed with water in a different bucket and use it for a dip to help kill off bacteria before putting it back in the system, also note the system needs to be cleaned out if you have root rot.... using products like sm90 will kill off the root rot, using h202 in your system does more harm than good, it kills off the bad bacteria and good thus creating a worse off problem after the h202 has been overran, h202 if used in a hydro/aero system must be replaced everyday due to it disapating from the air. After it disaptes the plants defensive system has been killed off by the h202 causing the root rot that was not killed by the h202 left and thus overruns the plants root system. So again h202 should never be used in the hydro system, be kept in the system, although it is safe to use to rid of algae growth in rockwool and other mediums, but never be used in with the root zones regularly. Sm90 is a good product you can use to kill off root rot. Hydroguard helps protect and there are many other products that work as well, hydroguard is one of the more popular ones that work.


    To prevent Root Rot, adding product's like Thrive Alive B-1, See Weed, Super thrive will help protect your plant's from root rot and will help cure root problems. ( Again ty so much for giving me the info syko2!!!)


    Here is what root rot looks like: 4eBig thanks goes out to buzz, diggerdigzit and Shop Vac! Thanks for the pics guys! :tup:
    First pic is of to high temps in the bubbler: Last 2 pics came from chemical burn root rot first pic, moldy rock wool with root rot.

    (Picture Provided by Buzz)
    56.jpg

    (Pictures 2 and 3 Provided by Chemical Burn)
    57.jpg 58.jpg

    (Picture 4 was contributed by Diggerdigzit)
    59.jpg
    "There he goes. One of God's own prototypes. A high-powered mutant of some kind never even considered for mass production. Too weird to live, and too rare to die." Hunter S. Thompson
    Overgrow Original | Sp3cialSt3v3420 | 2001 - 2006 | Overgrow The World
    TSD OG 2011-2013 | Hippie420 | Former Forums Manager

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    Bud Rot

    During the last week or two of flowering, depending on if you use chemical or organics. If you use chemical, you want to flush 1 ½ weeks to 2 weeks before harvest to flush out all of the chemical nutrients that your plant was using. If you are using Organics then you would want to flush about a week before harvest. Giving them plain water is fine, flushing them also improves the overall quality of your bud. Once you start to 'flush' you should check extra careful for bud rot. Bud Rot Happens when the humidity is high, if you have fat dense buds, or if mold spores are in the air. Bud rot looks like a black brownish sludge that can quickly take over your plant and ruin your harvest. The mold spores are air-borne.

    Prevent and Control

    Removing any dead or dying material from the plant helps prevent bud rot so does decreasing humidity and increasing ventilation. There are also safe anti fungal sprays from hydro shops that help. If you do find gray mould, cut off the infected part of the plant well above and below the effected area and remove it from the grow room. Decreasing the humidity from 55% to around 40% will make a big difference in preventing bud mold. Also having very big buds can cause bud rot, and would advise watching the areas on your plant that have the biggest, thickest and the more dense buds. Try to have medium size buds rather than having big thick buds. Having a dehumidify around when high humidity days can help as well.

    To protect them against bud rot for outside. DO NOT foliar spary at night, doing this the heat will not evaporate the water as well because it is night.
    Water the plants in the day instead of so close to being night. Same as foliar spraying.

    Make sure your plants are stress free as possible and checking plants often can aid in getting rid of moldy bud before the spores spread onto other areas of the plant! Have a lot of air going around the plants for bad ventilation= sick plants and a breeding ground for spores!

    Keep leaves away from soil making sure they do NOT touch the soil.

    Keep cooler temps at night while plants are on there down time.

    If you have gotten bud rot already the best thing to do is cut off the bad buds discard them away from you’re grow and apply any of the following: Neem oil, Neem2 which is a ready made solution!
    Using high ph water for foliar spray prevents them from spreading as well kills the mold. pythium is another good product to use! There are many other chemicals and organics that work, but these are the most popular and they work very very well!



    Fungus

    Fungus is another problem when you are in flowering, because they are susceptible to a fungus or bud rot. Growing conditions for fungus are best when temps are between 60 and 80 degrees and the humidity is high. The fungus is very destructive and spreads quickly. These kinds of fungus are air borne and can travel to other bud sites. If you already have been infected by them the best thing you can do is cut off and remove the infected area and then discard out of the grow area, then get a hold of some anti-fungal spray and apply.

    Fungi can kill your crop quick, so invest in some SAFE fungicide and spray down the plants as much as you can and as soon as you can. The faster the safer.. If you have had problems with fungus before, do NOT spray them you will contribute to the fungus becoming resistant to the spray/chemicals you are using. Try to keep the humidity down to the range fungus do not grow to well in. Keep a good amount of ventilation around your grow, and if you have plants outside, always keep them quarantined away you’re your indoor plants until you know they are safe.

    Most fungicides are very nasty and eating them can be very dangerous so its best to use something on them that is safe on plants that you can eat., Safer makes a very safe product that can be found in most stores and hydro shops. it contains only sulfur in solution. Here is a picture of what bud rot looks like when it starts to form.

    Control
    To control to prevent fungus from forming there are a few things you should do.

    DO NOT foliar feed at night, tends to make humidity higher rather than when you water in the day the water has time to evaporate where at night will linger in the air.

    Same goes for watering plants at night, wait till the morning or afternoon to water!

    Keep a happy plant and will not become prone to infections. Checking plants often can aid in getting rid of any fungus that may attack other leaves and or bud!

    Have a lot of air going around the plants for bad ventilation= sick plants and a breeding ground for spores!

    Keep leaves away from soil making sure they do NOT touch the soil.

    Keep cooler temps at night while plants are on there down time.


    If you have already gotten some kind of fungus there are things you can use: neem2, neem oil works wonders!! Potassium Bicarbonate, Baking soda and for other chemical agents you can use Plant Shield, Serenade and pythium! There are many other chemicals and organics that work but these are the most popular and they work very very well!


    BIG THANKS goes out to Bud63 for letting me use the pics!! :tup:
    60.jpg 61.jpg



    And that is the end of this guide... If MyNameStitch updates it in the future I will try to update ours as well... I hope this helps many, many, many, many more people! I you all enjoyed it.

    "There he goes. One of God's own prototypes. A high-powered mutant of some kind never even considered for mass production. Too weird to live, and too rare to die." Hunter S. Thompson
    Overgrow Original | Sp3cialSt3v3420 | 2001 - 2006 | Overgrow The World
    TSD OG 2011-2013 | Hippie420 | Former Forums Manager

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    Bump
    "There he goes. One of God's own prototypes. A high-powered mutant of some kind never even considered for mass production. Too weird to live, and too rare to die." Hunter S. Thompson
    Overgrow Original | Sp3cialSt3v3420 | 2001 - 2006 | Overgrow The World
    TSD OG 2011-2013 | Hippie420 | Former Forums Manager

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    Very informative thread hippie. Oink oink
    *undercover belly buster*

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    Tons of good stuff here! I'm so glad to have found a spot with so many willing to share.

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