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  1. #11
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    Boron (B) Micronutrient and Immobile element

    Boron is important when dealing with maturation, pollen germination and seed production. As well as keeping calcium in soluble forms and keeping the stems, stalks, branches strong. Born keeps good color on the leaves and helps produce the plants structure. Boron also aids in cell division and protein formation.

    Boron deficiencies will show up first in younger leaves (they may turn yellow), then moves up the plant. Boron deficiency can resemble calcium deficiency. Stunting, discolouration, possible death of the growing tips, bud abortion and development. The Roots will show a stunted with swollen short secondary roots, leaves distorted, sometimes bronzed or scorched. Tip of the shoot dies; stems and petioles are brittle. Boron deficiency plants are easy to tell, because of the spotting the leaves show like a strawberry mark and or splashes of the marking. Boron-deficiency symptoms first appear at the growing points. They also can show signs of newer growths turning gray and or dying, bud deformed, curling of the leaves which are often spotted and discolored. Newer growths appear to look like they are burnt. They can show signs of hollow stems along with yellowish to brownish color leaves. Dead (Necrotic) spots develop between leaf veins, as well as the leaves becoming thick. The leaves will wilt with necrotic and chlorotic spotting. Boron is poorly absorbed with low potassium content. First signs of the deficiency are abnormal growth tips. Having not enough boron can also invite troubles for fungus problems from the internal tissues to rot away, as well as the root hairs along with them being discolored. To avoid having a Boron deficiency try to keep the ph below 7 and to improve the moisture as well as retaining light soils.


    Too much boron in your plants can produce a lot of problems. The leave tips turn yellow progressing inwards causing the plant to soon die slowly along with leaves dropping a lot.
    Can show same signs as if a magnesium deficiency, but only happens on newer growths. Parts affected by a boron deficiency are: Growing points and young leaves.



    Problems with Boron Being Locked out by PH troubles

    Soil ph under 5.5 or over 6.8, sandy soil, soil with low organic matter and or lack of nitrogen.



    Soil

    Boron gets locked out of soil growing at ph levels of 2.0-5.0
    Boron is absorbed best in soil at a ph level of 5.0-7.0 (Wouldnít recommend having a soil ph of over 7.0 in soil) Anything out of the ranges listed will contribute to a Boron deficiency.


    Hydro and Soil less Mediums

    Boron gets locked out of Hydro and Soil less Mediums at ph levels of 2.0-5.0
    Boron is absorbed best in Hydro and Soil less Mediums at ph levels of 5.0-6.0(Wouldnít recommend having a ph over 6.5 in hydro and soil less mediums.) Best range for hydro and soil less mediums is 5.0 to 6.0. Anything out of the ranges listed will contribute to a boron deficiency.



    Solution to fixing a Boron deficiency
    One of the ways you can fix a boron deficiency is to either foliar spray or water regular. Treat with one teaspoon of Boric acid (sold as eyewash) per gallon of water. (Only mixing at Ĺ strength when using chemical nutrients or it will cause nutrient burn!) Other nutrients that have boron in them are: Borax, Boric Acid, Colemanite, Sodium pentaborate, Sodium tetraborate, which are ALL fast absorption. Garden Manure, Bone Meal are both good boron supplements, but are slow/medium absorption.

    Now if you added to much chemical nutrients and or organics, (which is hard to burn your plants when using organics) you need to flush the soil with plain water. You need to use 2 times as much water as the size of the pot, for example: If you have a 5 gallon pot and need to flush it, you need to use 10 gallons of water to rinse out the soil good enough to get rid of excessive nutrients.




    These pictures show a boron deficiency in different stages.
    Picture 1 (Contributed by: Turkish)
    20.jpg 21.jpg
    "There he goes. One of God's own prototypes. A high-powered mutant of some kind never even considered for mass production. Too weird to live, and too rare to die." Hunter S. Thompson
    Overgrow Original | Sp3cialSt3v3420 | 2001 - 2006 | Overgrow The World
    TSD OG 2011-2013 | Hippie420 | Former Forums Manager

  2. #12
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    Copper (Cu)

    Copper plays a big role in producing healthy plants, stems, branches and new growths, as well as for the plants reproduction and maturity.
    It also assists in carbohydrate metabolism and oxygen reduction.


    Copper deficiency plants shows a lack of growth, growth tips die back, green leaves will show a bluish hue and plants may have a hard time showing maturity in vegging stages. Copper deficient plants causes irregular growth and wilting in the newer growths. The Leaves at top will wilt easily along with bleaching (chlorosis) and necrotic areas in the leaves. Leaves on the top of the plant may show veinal chlorosis.(bleaching of the veins)
    Growth and yield will be diminished along with spots on the leaves that are necrotic.

    To much copper in the system will cause the plant to die, as if it was a poison.Near death the plant will induce iron deficiencies and the root system will decay along with abnormal size of the roots, along with little side branching. Some new growths may not open up, along with becoming thin pale green to a bluish hue. Parts affected by copper deficiency are: new shoots, young leaves, and or the whole plant.



    Problems with Copper being Locked out by Ph Troubles

    High ph along with highly compacted soil that has a lack of nitrogen.



    Soil

    Copper gets locked out of soil growing at ph levels of 2.0- 4.5
    Copper is absorbed best in soil at a ph level of 5.0-7.5 (Wouldnít recommend having a soil ph of over 7.0 in soil) anything out of the ranges listed will contribute to a Copper deficiency.


    Hydro and Soil less Mediums

    Copper gets locked out of Hydro and Soil less Mediums at ph levels of 6.5-9.0
    Copper is absorbed best in Hydro and Soil less Mediums at ph levels of 2.0-6.0 (Wouldnít recommend having a ph over 6.5 in hydro and soil less mediums.) Best range for hydro and soil less mediums is 5.0 to 6.0. Anything out of the ranges listed will contribute to a copper deficiency.



    Solution to fixing a Copper deficiency
    One way to treat a copper deficiency is by foliar feeding with Copper Sulphate, Cu sulfate, Cu chelates, Those 3 can also be used in soil. Any Chemical/Organic nutrients that have copper in them will fix a copper deficiency. (Only mixing at Ĺ strength when using chemical nutrients or it will cause nutrient burn!)
    Other nutrients that have copper in them are: Granular, Garden Manure, Greensand.


    Now if you added to much chemical nutrients and or organics, (which is hard to burn your plants when using organics) you need to flush the soil with plain water. You need to use 2 times as much water as the size of the pot, for example: If you have a 5 gallon pot and need to flush it, you need to use 10 gallons of water to rinse out the soil good
    enough to get rid of excessive nutrients. Damaged leaves will NOT recover.





    Picture 1 is a copper deficiency, (it may look like a over fertilization ( nitrogen) but look at the bottom of the leaves, notice how they are yellow and a bit of white, also some of the fan leave tips are brown and dying off.)
    22.jpg
    "There he goes. One of God's own prototypes. A high-powered mutant of some kind never even considered for mass production. Too weird to live, and too rare to die." Hunter S. Thompson
    Overgrow Original | Sp3cialSt3v3420 | 2001 - 2006 | Overgrow The World
    TSD OG 2011-2013 | Hippie420 | Former Forums Manager

  3. #13
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    Molybdenum (Mo)

    Molybdenum has proteins that help the plant take nitrogen from the air.


    A Molybdenum deficiency causes leaves to have a pale, fringed and scorched look, along with weird or retarded leaf growth. Yellowing of middle leaves can occur as well as twisted younger leaves which will eventually die. Molybdenum deficiencies frequently resemble a nitrogen deficiency. A Molybdenum deficiency shows older chlorotic leaves with rolled margins and stunted growth. Looks like a nitrogen deficiency but with the red tips moving inwards to the middle of the leaves. Molybendum deficiency will usually show up in the older to middle aged leaves, then it moves to the young leaves. Generally a molybdenum deficiency occurs when sulfur and phosphorus are deficient.

    Molybdenum toxicity doesnít cause to many problems, but may cause problems when the human ingests it. Excessive molybdenum in cannabis will look like iron or copper deficiency. Parts affected are by the molybdenum deficiency are: Older leaves.

    Problems with Molybdenum being Locked out by Ph Troubles

    Soil ph that are under 5.5


    Soil

    Molybdenum gets locked out of soil growing at ph levels of 2.0-6.5
    Molybdenum is absorbed best in soil at a ph level of 7.0-9.5 (Wouldnít recommend having a soil ph of over 7.0 in soil) anything out of the ranges listed will contribute to a Molybdenum deficiency.



    Hydro and Soil less Mediums

    Molybdenum gets locked out of Hydro and Soil less Mediums at ph levels of 2.0-5.5
    Molybdenum is absorbed best in Hydro and Soil less Mediums at ph levels of 6.0-8.0 (Wouldnít recommend having a ph over 6.5 in hydro and soil less mediums.) Best range for hydro and soil less mediums is 5.0 to 6.0. Anything out of the ranges listed will contribute to a Molybdenum deficiency.



    Solution to fixing a Molybdenum deficiency
    One way to fix a Molybdenum deficiency is to foliar spray with Molybdenum, like Miracle Grow All Purpose plant food and Miracle Grow: Tomato Plant Food. These can also be used to mix in with water as well. (Only mixing at Ĺ strength when using chemical nutrients, or it will cause nutrient burn!)Other nutrients that have Molybdenum in them are: I think Peters All Purpose Plant food does, as well as Greensand, Lime. Green sand and lime is slow/medium absorption, while Peters All Purpose Plant Food is fast absorption.


    Now if you added to much chemical nutrients and or organics,( which is hard to burn your plants when using organics) You need to Flush the soil with plain water. You need to use 2 times as much water as the size of the pot, for example: If you have a 5 gallon pot and need to flush it, you need to use 10 gallons of water to rinse out the soil good enough to get rid of excessive nutrients.




    Picture 1 and 2 is a Molybdenum deficiency in late flowering
    23.jpg 24.jpg
    "There he goes. One of God's own prototypes. A high-powered mutant of some kind never even considered for mass production. Too weird to live, and too rare to die." Hunter S. Thompson
    Overgrow Original | Sp3cialSt3v3420 | 2001 - 2006 | Overgrow The World
    TSD OG 2011-2013 | Hippie420 | Former Forums Manager

  4. #14
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    Nickel (Ni)

    Nickel is required by plants for proper seed germination
    Though Ni deficiency symptoms are not well documented. Symptoms include chlorosis and interveinal chlorosis in young leaves that that goes down to plant tissue necrosis. Other things are poor seed germination and decreases in crop yield.





    Terminology


    Chlorosis
    yellowing of the leaf tissue.


    Interveinal Chlorosis
    Yellowing in between leaf veins, veins themselves remaining green.

    Necrosis
    The plant tissue browns and dies. The tissue which has already died on a still living plant is called necrotic tissue.
    "There he goes. One of God's own prototypes. A high-powered mutant of some kind never even considered for mass production. Too weird to live, and too rare to die." Hunter S. Thompson
    Overgrow Original | Sp3cialSt3v3420 | 2001 - 2006 | Overgrow The World
    TSD OG 2011-2013 | Hippie420 | Former Forums Manager

  5. #15
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    Sick plants that are from bug infestation, ph problems and over watering/under watering




    Over watering

    Over watering is one of the biggest mistakes new growers make, reason for this is, because they feel the need to give there plant everything and will overdue a lot of things and one of them is over watering. By over watering your plant you soak the roots so much, they canít get enough oxygen and slowly die. The plant shows signs of over watering by: Wilting, droopy look, yellow and or dead leaves falling off, which includes leaves that donít look dead falling off. One of the best ways to tell how NOT to over water is by, picking up the pot when it is dry and then picking up the pot after you water. (This is a reason why itís smart to use light pots.) When you water, you want to water just enough to where you see a bit of water coming out of the bottom, not gushing or pouring out. Just enough to see a little bit, then you know the plant has enough water. To prevent over watering you can either: add more perlite to your soil, add hydrogen peroxide to your water for extra oxygen, all the while killing bacteria if any in the soil. After watering, wait a few days to water. Mj plants like a good watering and then a couple days to dry out in between watering. So itís very easy to over water. Besides the weight of the pot, another way to test if your plant needs water is to stick your index finger a couple inches into the soil. If the soil at the tip of your finger feels almost dry, then it's time to water again. The top of the soil should be allowed to dry out between waterings if it's still moist the plant does NOT need watered. You can also use a moisture meter which will tell you the level of moisture down in the soil. You can buy them at most garden supplies or hydro shops.
    Here is a picture of what over watering looks like:

    (Picture Provided by ShopVac)
    25.jpg

    This shows a comparison of underwatering and overwatering of plants.
    26.jpg

    Picture 3 shows overwatering of a seedling, and thus nitrogen is not being absorbed due to soggy soil.
    (Photo Credit: Trichome Design)
    27.jpg

    Under Watering

    Under watering can show the exact same symptoms as over watering can, they show the droopiness along with the top soil being hard. To avoid this make sure every other other watering you give your plants a good watering, like use a bit more water then you normally do, because sometimes your plants will need a good quenching once in a while. So doing this will help the bottom roots and root hairs get enough water to produce newer growth. For new growers they tend to do both over watering and under watering.
    More over watering then anything else, they tend to be to "generous", and then you have ones that are to afraid to water them to much and then they get the under watering symptom. Under watering seems to droop more than over watering does, the fan leaves will droop closer to the stalk and won't be as yellow as over watering looks like, under watering looks like this picture below, only way to stop under watering is to water when the pot feels lite. Make sure few drips of water come out at the bottom of the holes, that way you know the plant has enough water.
    28.jpg
    "There he goes. One of God's own prototypes. A high-powered mutant of some kind never even considered for mass production. Too weird to live, and too rare to die." Hunter S. Thompson
    Overgrow Original | Sp3cialSt3v3420 | 2001 - 2006 | Overgrow The World
    TSD OG 2011-2013 | Hippie420 | Former Forums Manager

  6. #16
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    Ph Problems

    One of the first signs of having a slight ph problem is, your plant having part of the leaves kind of twisty, spotty with brown, yellowish, red spots within each other.
    Sometimes they donít have to have all the colors, they could just be spots that have yellowish brown, or just reddish brown and can happen anywhere on the plant. Mainly starts on big fan leaves then goes to little leaves.
    When this happens you need to check your soil ph, water ph before and after adding your nutrients. One of the biggest causes is adding nutrients like earth juice; they take the ph down quite a bit. Also can happen when you add bone and blood meal to your soil, that will throw the ph off as well, so itís smart to test the mix before putting your plants into the mix. After the spots happen you will soon see nutrients being locked out, when that happens DO NOT ADD ANYTHING TO FIX THE PROBLEM UNTILL YOU GET YOUR PH FIXED!! Reason why is, because the plant isnít absorbing that nutrient, by adding the nutrient it is deficient in, you are causing it to have a build up in the soil therefore can cause that nutrient to become toxic to the plant, because of buildup, to much buildup of certain nutrients will lock out other nutrients. In order to fix the problem you will need to first fix the ph and then if the soil is deficient in nutrients you can add it to fix the problem. A digital PH tester is the best tester to use as they are the most accurate. If you canít afford a digital ph meter, then your best bet is to get ph testing papers. DO NOT get soil testers, those are the cheapest junk I ever seen and do not give good readings, so you cant rely on one of those. There are a lot of good ph testers out there, one of them is hanna. That is the one I use and is the best money ever spent! Vast majority of problems with soil ph comes from the soil if it has additives like peat moss, which is HILGY acidic..... and or the water you are using, as well as nutrient deficiencies from using the wrong ph for watering. You want to be careful when adjusting your ph, doing this over a week is the best idea, to fast will cause shock to the plant. If you canít get a hold of a ph tester or ph test papers. If you have some dolomite lime, its always better to use it in soil rather than every time you water, imo and from others (Uncle Ben) That it really doesnít stabilize as many people think it does, Soil pH and micronutrient availability are interrelated. Donít Use to much lime to decrease the soil pH to a point where micronutrients can't be unavailable to plants. The micronutrients affected by pH include iron, manganese, zinc and, not as often copper. The problems when you apply to much lime can make it harder to correct your ph than what you would have when you didnít add as much lime. You can always add more lime, but if you add to much you canít remove it if you put to much lime in the soil. With great soil moisture, lime will work immediately and pH will start to change over a few months. However, it can take up to a year for the real benefit of lime to work. As the soil pH rises, the time it takes for lime to react decreases due to lower levels of soil acids. If you need to change your ph when its to high, if you choose to use lime it will not help as much as you think in lowering your ph, it would need alot of lime to lower your ph to a point where it would cause a toxcicity to the plants so look else where to use something to lower your ph rather than using lime.

    So here at the bottom is a list of some buffers that are good to go with when raising and lowering ph!

    Here are some ph buffers when your ph is too high: Use these SOIL PH Adjustments to lower your ph: sawdust, composted leaves, wood chips, cottonseed meal, leaf mold and peat moss. Sawdust, composted leaves, woodchips and, lemon juice, PH DOWN.

    Hydro PH Adjustments: PH Down (vinegar and lemon juices are good for soil, but not recommended for hydro use) Phosphoric acid during flowering and Nitric acid for vegtative growth.Thanks goes out to syko2 for that one! (Only quality PH buffers should be used to adjust ph and be sure the buffer and nutrient work's well together.)

    Here are some that will raise the ph: use these SOIL Adjustments when your ph is to low: PH UP, dolomite lime, hardwood ash, bone meal, crushed marble, or crushed oyster shells, potassium hydroxide <--- Thank you Uncle Ben!

    Hydro Adjustments: PH UP,lime,potassium hydroxide and potassium sillicate .(Only quality PH buffers should be used to adjust ph and be sure the buffer and nutrient work's well together.)


    Here are a few pictures of ph spotting before nutrient lockout occurs. The last pic is shown is high ph with the twisty leaves. Note the edges are brown, this is a potassium deficiency that is caused by ph lockout.(Sometimes this gets confused with a nitrogen toxicity, so always keep your ph in check and test it often!)
    29.jpg

    Props goes to Chemical Burn For the Picture!
    30.jpg
    "There he goes. One of God's own prototypes. A high-powered mutant of some kind never even considered for mass production. Too weird to live, and too rare to die." Hunter S. Thompson
    Overgrow Original | Sp3cialSt3v3420 | 2001 - 2006 | Overgrow The World
    TSD OG 2011-2013 | Hippie420 | Former Forums Manager

  7. #17
    OG/TSD Refugee
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    Pest Troubles

    Well this isnít going to be a long one, just going to talk about what each bug does, what are its symptoms and how to prevent and kill them.

    White flys:

    They look just like tiny months, and lay eggs on leaves and or top of the soil. They are a pest in big numbers and are not very hard to get rid of; they can cause damage by sucking sap from the plants and also causes viruses to the plants. While they suck, the plants release honeydew which can contribute to mold on your plants. White flies are not flies they are related to the aphidís family, and this there damage relates to aphid infestation. Your plants will have a spotty look to the leaves, and will droop and loose vigor. Leaves may have a sticky feeling as well. If you are not sure if you have them, you can shake your plants leaves a bit, the white flies will then fly around for a bit before settling back on the plants leaves. White flies like to lay there eggs on the underside of the leaves, just like spider mites. Eggs take around 7 to 10 days to hatch, once hatched the pupate will stay in an area that is good in food and then it feeds on leaves. If your plants are affected during late flowering or close to harvest, please try to use the safest means of control to be safe to your health.


    Here are some ways NOT to get them: Do not overwater your potted plants. Allow the soil to dry between waterings and provide good drainage. Another one is to put sticky traps up when you think you may have them, that way when they get stuck you can identify them.
    if you already have white flys, you can use insecticidal soap, this will help stop them from flying so it wont infect other plants.
    It also stops them from laying new eggs. If you use the soap reapply weekly.

    Chemicals

    Hot Pepper Wax,Safer Yard & Garden Insecticide (which can be used right to the day of harvest),GNATROL( used in hydro in the water as well as soil),Doc's Neem Pest Soap,Safer Sticky Stakes,TR-11000 Pyrethrum.




    Symphilids

    Small pests that are tan to white colored and look like centipedes. They are very deadly to the plants, because they burrow down into the roots and damage them by feeding of them. Your plants leaves will begin to die off. They are found mostly in soil composites that have not been cleaned, like soil that has additives in them such as animal manure.
    (I know it will smell funny but sterilizing the soil in the oven for 30 min can kill any pests in the soil, heat to 350 for 30 min.) They are easy to tell if you have them, because they come to the top soil when your plant is being watered, if you find you do have them, use Fungus Gnat Killer (ďB.T." a non chemical,biological control) in the powdered form. One application should kill it, just to be safe repeat every 7 days to kill off the larvae. Tobacco juice kills them as well! And nematodes.

    Picture 2 shows the Symphilids look like..

    (photo provided by Diels Alder)
    31.jpg

    Fungus Gnats

    Fungus gnats like to feed on roots of the plants and organic matter. Adults and larvae live in moist, shady areas. The adults lay there eggs on top of the soil, near the base of the stem and takes about 4 days to hatch. The larvae will start by eating the root hairs of the plant then working their way up the plant, Fungus gnats like to eat organic matter so they will be stealing away nutrients from your plants, so its best to get rid of them completely. [color=red. Plants growing in rock wool are more prone to getting a more severe infestation than plants growing in soil. If your plants are affected during late flowering or close to harvest, please try to use the safest means of control to be safe to your health.[/color]

    [color=red]Prevent and Control

    Prevent indoor entry of gnats by making sure there is no open windows open without screens on. Aug is a bad time for them as they are worst that time of the year.

    Put sticky traps on the soil surface to trap the gnats

    Put potato slices on the surface of the soil. The larvae like it and will be drawn to it.. After about 4 to 5 days, remove the potato slices with the larvae. To get rid of them you can do a lot of things like either use a NO pest strip, neem oil or putting sand on the surface of the soil will suffocate the eggs and get rid of them as well. Tobacco juice kills them, and works well for re-occurrences!

    They can be in or on the soil and can fly. In order to get rid of them you can use neem oil, sand or perlite on the surface again kills them, and no pest strips catch the ones that fly. A chemical product called Zone works very well and is very powerful and works well in Hydroponics/Aeroponics!
    Other Products which can be used in Hydroponics/Aeroponics and soil are:


    Safer Yard & Garden Insecticide

    GNATROL( used in Hydroponics/Aeroponics in the water as well as soil),
    Safer Sticky Stakes,
    TR-11000 Pyrethrum.
    PERMETHRIN dust
    Mosquito Dunks

    Organic Control

    Natrasoap
    Pest Oil
    Neem Oil
    Hot Pepper Wax
    Doc's Neem Pest Soap
    Sticky traps
    Safer's Insecticidal Soap
    Neem Oil
    Neem 2



    Picture 4 shows the fungus gnat.
    Picture 5 shows there larvae (Picture contributed by: Chocobot hour)
    32.jpg 33.jpg

    Spider mites:

    Spider mites are by far the worst pest to have, because they are the hardest to kill and can literally kill any plant. They are by far more active in warmer climates than cold ones, they also suck sup from the leaves leaving tiny white spots on the leaves from where they suck on. The damage they do is just like thrips, but with spider mites they pierce the surface of the leaves and can show tiny holes or white speckling damage, unlike with thirps they eat the surface of the chlorophyll. You can tell when you have infestation of spider mites , because you will have distorted growth, shortened internodes and petioles.
    When you have bad infestation you will see webbing with larva in them. You get spider mites from either store bought soil mostly when your soil is not sterilized. Most brands do not state weather or not they are, chances are if you buy cheap soil, you have a less likely chance of the soil being sterile.Also, bringing outdoor plants indoors, or getting plants from someone else who was infected with spidermites.
    Spider mites live on the plant itself and are under the leaves most of the time and are usually are so tiny you canít see them with the naked eye. In order to get rid of spider mites one of the best ways to start to get rid of them is to use NO-Pest strips.NO-Pest strips work well and should always be used with other methods. Neem oil helps get rid of them as well. Also by raising the humidity in your grow room a lot will kill the spider mites off, by them absorbing to much humidity and will burst. You can use soap solution like Safer Insecticidal Soap to get rid of most aphid problems. Use some tobacco juice and chili pepper powder added to this for mites. (see below how to make tabacco juice)
    Pyrethrum should only be used in extreme circumstances directly on plants, It starts to breaks down around a week and is easily washed away with clear water or. If your plants are in flowering and you have spider mites, using safer chemicals is your best bet. The tobacco and pepper soap solution works well and should be used daily, spraying on the underside and top leaves and later the whole plant. Since spider mites are very residual to common products, you have to find or try any number of ones untill you get rid of them. make absolutly sure you retreat as stated, other wise you will get resistant spidermites and then you have a bigger battle on your hands.Also do not allow pets that go outside alot to be around indoor plants,mites have been known to be carried in from pets to plants. PLEASE NOTE, below are ways to get rid of spider mites, but no 2 mite infestations are identical, you almost always have to use different products to get rid of them, also make a habit to check for at least a whole month after thinking you got rid of them, that way your chances of the spider mites that became resistant breeding and then having a bigger problem. Make sure you spray your plant down very good and enough and on time.
    Here are some more products that may help get rid of spider mites:


    Hot Pepper Wax,Safer Yard & Garden Insecticide (which can be used right to the day of harvest),GNATROL( used in hydro in the water as well as soil),Doc's Neem Pest Soap,Safer Sticky Stakes,TR-11000 Pyrethrum. Anything that says dicofol on the back. ( should be used in vegging or early flowering)

    Avid
    GNATROL( used in Hydroponics/Aeroponics in the water as well as soil)
    Safer Sticky Stakes
    TR-11000 Pyrethrum
    Anything that says dicofol on the back. ( should be used in vegging or early flowering)
    PERMETHRIN dust

    Organics

    Organocide
    Hot Pepper Wax,
    Safer Yard & Garden Insecticide
    Doc's Neem Pest Soap
    Organocide
    Bugzyme Natural Pest Killer
    Schultz-Instant Insect Spray
    Lady Beetles (Beneficial Insect)
    Predatory mite (Beneficial Insect)
    Pirate Bugs (Beneficial Insect)
    Neem Oil
    Neem 2





    Tabacco Juice recipe

    Take 3 strong ciggeretes soak them over night in water
    Boil it for 2 to 3 miniutes, let it cool off and spray the plants 3 to 4 times a week. You can add safer soap if you like to the mixture.
    (make absolutly sure you use gloves/face protection while handling and spraying)
    Neem oil works very well too!!
    ZBQ has an excellent thread on how to use neem oil without geting your plants to oily!! (Edit: Dead Link) Your Last resort is to use Avid.

    Pictures 5 shows spider mites and there larva. Picture 6 shows spider mite damage. Picture 7 shows SPidermites larvae and spidermites closeup( Picture contibuted by sukalo)
    34.jpg 35.jpg 36.jpg
    "There he goes. One of God's own prototypes. A high-powered mutant of some kind never even considered for mass production. Too weird to live, and too rare to die." Hunter S. Thompson
    Overgrow Original | Sp3cialSt3v3420 | 2001 - 2006 | Overgrow The World
    TSD OG 2011-2013 | Hippie420 | Former Forums Manager

  8. #18
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    Thrips

    Thrips are really tiny, but can be seen by the naked eye. Some may have wings and some may not. Thrips reproduce rapidly, especially in tight places. That is what makes them hard to get rid of when using pesticides. The suck the sap right out of your plant with there piercing mouths, which makes the leaves look like they turned white. You can tell when you have thrips by taking a look at your leaves, the leaves will look as if there chlorophyll have been ripped right off the plant. Plants that are damaged canít be healed thus making it harder for the plant to absorb light. SO if left untreated the thrips will kill the plants. Damage also can be seen by the greenish black specks of there poop they leave on leaves. Also the plants will show silver patchs from scar tissue. Depending on the severity at first, thrip damage might look like spider mite damage untill it increases in damage and then thrips case is for sure when you see the greenness replace with big parts of white.Thrips also can causes viruses to the plants and any larvae infected will breed more infected pests!. While they suck, the plants release honeydew which can contribute to mold on your plants. Adults have wings but do not fly well, but rather jump more. There are different kinds of Thrips, some more resistant to chemicals. Thrips can also carry plant pathogens in there mouths and carry it to other plants increasing the chance for your plants to get infected. . If your plants are affected during late flowering or close to harvest, please try to use the safest means of control to be safe to your health.



    Control


    One good way to repel thrips for those growing outside is to use garlic, this is a good way to keep them away before you get them. The color yellow attracts the thrips and should be advised not to have this color around your grow.. If you already have them using neem oil, and or lady bugs can get rid of them. If the infestation is bad then you need to use biological solution like, pyrethrin-like insecticides.


    Other Products include:

    Chemicals
    Hot Pepper Wax,Safer Yard & Garden Insecticide (which can be used right to the day of harvest),GNATROL( used in hydro in the water as well as soil),Doc's Neem Pest Soap,Safer Sticky Stakes,TR-11000 Pyrethrum.

    Picture 1 is Thrip damage
    Picture 2 is Thrip Larvae (Picture Contributed by: Flatt)
    37.jpg 38.jpg


    Caterpillars (cutworms, cabbageworms, ect.)

    There are several different kinds of catapillars that may affect cannabis plants, mainly the ones that affect the plants, do almost the same damage, some do more severe depending on the numbers you have eating on your plants. Most caterpillars will do damage by chewing holes in the leaves, the holes will be kind of big, if so you know itís not going to be a smaller kind of pest.
    If you find caterpillars have been eating at your plants and you need to get rid of them; there are several non-toxic and least toxic methods to choose from. You can also shake your plant a bit to make the caterpillars fall off your plants. . If your plants are affected during late flowering or close to harvest, please try to use the safest means of control to be safe to your health.

    Prevent and Control

    Hand picking: Easy way to control them is to pick them up and knock them into a bucket of soapy water. If you are scared about handling caterpillars, you can use some gloves or have someone else pick them up for you.


    PERMETHRIN dust
    BTK in dust form can be used to kill caterpillars. BTK can also be used to foliar spray your plants. One tablespoon of neem oil added to your BT mix helps stick the mix to the plants better when you are foliar spraying.. BTK is available in liquid form. Apply BTK on all of the leaves both top and underside If you decided using the dust kind,spray your plants down with water before you apply the dust Apply every week to 2 weeks and or after it rains. The caterpillars must eat the BT as they are feeding on foliage in order for the caterpillars to be rid of.


    Organic

    Insecticidal soaps, neem, oil, and spinosad are the safest insecticides that can be used to control.. Soaps and neem are non-toxic and are great to use when you have a lot of pests and want to be friendly to nature and its animals. Spinosad works very very good in controlling the caterpillar population and is non toxic to wild-life, pets, and humans. It hardly has any impact at all on the plants.


    Picture 1 shows caterpillar damage
    39.jpg


    Slugs and snails (Outdoor Growers)

    Both slugs and snails travel by secreting a mucus or slime on which they glide. When you see the slime trail on your plants and have damage, then it was most likely caused by slugs or snails.When your garden is very moist slugs and snails can live for a long time as this is the key to them living a long time. If you keep your garden not as moist and dark slugs and snails cannot live as long. They stay away from the sunlight along with hiding around moist dark areas in the garden.They also hide in Mulches, short stubby plants, boards, and in the soil. They come out mostly at night and on cloudy days. They feed by chewing holes into your leaves and can clip the edges of leaves and flowers.Slugs and Snails are mostly pests of seedlings and herbaceous plants that are close to the ground. In order to confirm the damage was caused by slugs or snails, look for a silvery trail of mucous.


    Controls

    Snails can cause massive damage to gardens if given a chance. It is very unlikely you will be able to completely rid your garden of them, but try to keep the numbers down as much as possible to keep healthy and undamaged plants. Here are some ways to control slugs and snails.

    Reduce slug and snail damage dramatically by watering in the morning instead of the evening.
    If you do see any slugs or snails avoid putting mulches and dark hiding cover.Oak leaf mulch will deter slugs and snails.
    Handpick slugs and snails at night. Use a bucket to put them into soapy water.
    Lay boards down in the garden to trap slugs and snails.
    Diatomaceous earth sprinkled around youíre your plants base of the stems will help keep out slugs and snails, but it can also stop other beneficial insects.

    Soak the soil with wormwood tea.

    Put copper wire around your garden or at the base of your.Slugs get a big shock when they touch copper Just make sure you donít trap them inside your garden when you put copper around your garden.

    Beer is good to use, because slugs love beer!. Take a container of beer and bury it in your garden with it just barly above the ground so they can drink it and drown.

    And one of our favorite additives.... SALT!

    Predators that like to eat snails include:snakes, toads, frogs,fireflies, predatory snails, birds, beetles. The large, black iridescent beetles you see in your yard are predators. Firefly larvae eat on slugs and snails and can literally wipe out the development of them by eating 40 to 60 snails from just 1 larve of a firefly!!

    Please be kind to nature and pets and stay away from poison slug bates. If you have seen what it can do to pets you wouldnít want to ever use it again!!!

    Poisonous baits are hazardous to all living beings and animals. Slugs and snails can become resistant to baits. So its better to use other methods and stay away from chemical baits, all the while protecting nature.


    Leaf miners

    These Little creatures are a pain to get rid of, the miners eat and dig squiggly lines into your leaves all the while planting there larvae in them making it hard to get rid of them. They plant there eggs in the leaves in mid When they hatch they feed off of your leaves untill they get big enough to pupate. Pupation occurs within the leaf or in the soil beneath the plant. After they emerge the entire cycle will start over and you will have a bigger infestation. You can tell you have leaf miners by looking at your leaves; it will look like someone carved scribble lines all over the plants leaves. Leaf miners also can leave your plant open to pathogens and fungus and low yields from the damage to the leaves. The females dig into the leaves and lay there eggs, the sap that is secreted when the leaf minors do damage attract ants and flies. . If your plants are affected during late flowering or close to harvest, please try to use the safest means of control to be safe to your health.

    Controls

    Controls: Natural control for these insects is difficult. You can remove affected leaves and discard them. Chemical control is hard and is ment towards the emerging adults. Since the larvae is well protected within the leaf. Neem oil will work well.


    Pictures 3-4 shows leaf miners attack
    40.jpg 41.jpg


    Scale (Outdoor Problem)

    Scale can be found on stems, underside of branches, trunks, young trees or shrubs. They usally emerge from there eggs around March to Aug and make there homes on the plant. They pierce the cells and feed on the sap of the plant. After they have a place on your plant they devlop a very hard shell which protects them from other preadatory insects and chemical compounds to get rid of them. After they develop this hard back the secreation they drip attracts ants. Now since the ants travel over the scales thus dragging it all over your plant spreading the scale from one place to another on the plants. When the secreation falls on leaves it can make a type of mold called Sooty Mold which makes the leaves look dirty and black.


    Pictures show Scale infestation:
    (Photo Credit: Meddev)
    42.jpg 43.jpg
    "There he goes. One of God's own prototypes. A high-powered mutant of some kind never even considered for mass production. Too weird to live, and too rare to die." Hunter S. Thompson
    Overgrow Original | Sp3cialSt3v3420 | 2001 - 2006 | Overgrow The World
    TSD OG 2011-2013 | Hippie420 | Former Forums Manager

  9. #19
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    Sooty MOLD

    The problem with this type of fungi is that it attracts several types of sucking insects,like Aphids, Mealy Bugs, Thrips, and Whiteflies..This mold is so dark that it affects the plant by inhibiting the light from reaching its leaves which stops photosynthesis, which in turn makes the plant die.


    Control

    The waxy layer that is on scales protects them from insects and other pesticides. In order to get rid of them Use a horticultural oil to kill the adult populations throughout the year. If you can combine the oil with the insecticide, such as, Orthene, Sevin, or malathion it can almost wipe out the scale population along with the sooty mold it causes!Neem soil works very well too!

    You can do a few things.. more if your not nearing the end of harvest..

    1) take a pack of chewing tobacco, mix it with a gallon of water, let it brew for a day.. spray the plants down as needed.. if your a cigarette smoker no worries spray em down till harvest.. watch for mold..

    2) take some safers natural soap, mix it with some water so its a soapy slippery mixture, soak em down.. the idea is to suffocate the bugs in the soapy bubbles..




    Ants

    Ants are all over the place indoors and outdoors. Ants can be a pest in your garden, because there homes are underground in the colonies which require them to burrow through and thus causing root hairs and roots to be damaged from there digging.
    Though generally they do not cause damage to the leaves from biting they may be eating dead leaf tissue, there may also be a hidden side to ants. Ants can carry aphids to your plants and thus causing the infestation, they can also be attracted to your plants if you already have a pest infestation. Aphids, mealy bugs, white flies can secret a sticky substance known as ďhoney dewĒ which is a sugar concentrate from the plant's sap after aphids have excreted it on the plant. Ants love this and which is why they are attracted to plants that have an infestation. This honey dew that is secreted from pests can attract sooty mold where ever the honey dew is secreted on the plant.( See Sooty Mold for Details) If your plants do not have an infestation of pests, but you see ants you need to get rid of them, because of them being able to carry pests to your plants.
    Ants are generally attracted to plants that already have aphids; white flies mealy bugs and scales. You can see ants on the plant and around the soil and in the soil. Your plants may show a different number of problems, but the main damage is not caused by the ants, itís the pests that the ants may bring in or what they are attracted to on your plants.


    Prevent and Control

    To make sure you can keep ants away from your plants, you need to make sure your plants are free of insects and other pests that ants are attracted to. There are many ways you can deterrent ants from wandering into your grow area.
    Boric acid is an inorganic powder that must be kept away from children and pets. Sprinkling it around your soil will help kill them when you water your plants, while the boric acid gets into the soil. Boric acid will not be toxic to your plants; it is also used for a cure when your plants have a boron deficiency. Do not apply boric acid on the plant itself; this is for soil plants, and areas around your plants that are outdoors.
    Sticky traps or tangle foot can help for the upper parts of the plants that have ant infestation. Cucumber parings can also be used as a repellant. Lemon Juice mixed with 50/50 water can be sprayed on the plant as a repellant. Using common herbs like sage, mint leaves, and spearmint. Mixing some of these with water can be used to spray onto the plant. Using peanut butter ball with a bit of sugar on it can be a sticky trap where they canít get out of. You can put it near the soil or small bits on the leaves, or where high infestation areas on your plants. Watering your plants with apple cider vinegar can make them come up and can also kill the larva in the soil. Flushing well before using methods can help out a lot due to flooding the nest makes them come up out of the nest and killing there larva from drowning. When they come up using a deterrent can chase them away, if not use any one of these items to kill them or deterrent them. Chemical Control should always be the last resort for cannabis plants. Other ways to combat ants with chemical ways:




    Chemical Control

    pyrethren
    Malathion Plus
    Insect spray concentration
    Ant Baits
    Ant be gone baits


    Organic Control

    (Deterrents)
    Sage
    Instant Grits (causes dehydration)
    Cayenne pepper
    Citric extracts
    Cinnamon
    Cream of tartar
    Salt
    Peppermint
    Sage
    Spearmint
    Cucumber parings
    Peppermint tea
    Schultz-Instant Insect Spray

    (Deterrent and Kill)
    Water with apple cider vinegar
    Flooding the nest with lots of water
    Boric Acid
    Orange peels, chopped, or grinded and lay on the soil top.
    Orange Guard
    Boric Acid mixed with sugar and water added a bit of peanut butter and laid in the soil.
    Safer Sticky Stakes
    "There he goes. One of God's own prototypes. A high-powered mutant of some kind never even considered for mass production. Too weird to live, and too rare to die." Hunter S. Thompson
    Overgrow Original | Sp3cialSt3v3420 | 2001 - 2006 | Overgrow The World
    TSD OG 2011-2013 | Hippie420 | Former Forums Manager

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    Miscellaneous Sick Plant Troubles

    This picture is caused by temperature changing from cold to warm, cold nights and warm days.

    Some varieties, like equatorial sativas, don't take well to cold weather. If you can keep the roots warmer, the plant will be able to take cooler temps than it otherwise could. Also note that in colder temps, phosphorus gets poorly absorbed and if this happens your plants can show purpling of the leaves and stems, (cannabis has a natural purple color to it's stems, the deep purple is what shows the problem)this is the same example when plants change color in flowering when environment triggers cause the plant to change color, also genes play a role as well.
    44.jpg

    This picture below shows phosphorus being locked out due to cold temps.
    (Photo Credit: TikTok420)
    45.jpg

    Another lockout of phosphorus due to cooler temps
    46.jpg


    This picture is what light bleaching/ light burn looks like.
    Only way to fix this is to Move the lights away from the plant!
    Or make sure you dont go over 75 watts a sq foot, or your plant will have to much light and light bleaching can occur anywhere on the plant. (indica species seem to bleach easier than sativas imo.)

    (Picture Provided by Boy Howdy)
    47.jpg


    These pictures is what heat stress looks like.
    Only way to fix this is to Move the lights away from the plant!
    And get better ventalation, and or add more fans! Heat - If the lights are too close to the plant, the tops may be curled,
    dry, and look burnt, mimicking a
    nutrient problem. Your hand should not feel hot after a minute when you hold it at the top of the plants.


    (Picture 1 and 2 Provided by Mosfed)
    48.jpg 49.jpg


    Nutrient Burn :teef:


    Nutrient Burn is one of the MOST common mistakes a new grower makes, reason for this is, because a newer grower will use a chemical nutrient most of the time and listen to the directions on the box. This is a NO NO! Depending on the age of the plant, size, strain and soil mixture you are using also has a factor. There is no set guideline when using nutrients, but I can give you a good example to start out with so you will not burn your plants. Itís always good to start out light, rather than feed heavy. Remember you can always add more later, but can not take out when you added to much. Chemical and Organic nutrients differ. Chemical nutrients are more readily available and can burn way easier than organics can. Organics are easier for a newer grower to use, most of the time, and lessen your chances of burning your plants.
    I recommend not using more than Ĺ teaspoon of chemical nutrients per gallon of water. Unless the plants are very big 5 feet+, then itís safe to use 1 teaspoon per gallon of water. When your plants first emerge you want to wait at least 2 weeks before feeding your plants, unless your plants are in a soiless mixture, like pro mix. The cotyledons (its first set of round looking leaves) are what give the plant its food until they get the first 2 or 3 sets of leaves. If your plants are in a soiless mixture and are over the first week of age; you can feed a weak amount of nutrients, like ľ teaspoon per gallon of water. Soiless mixtures are different from soil plants and soiless plants need to be fed more when using this mixture.

    I also recommend not feeding more than 1 time a week if using Ĺ teaspoon per gallon of water for chemical nutrients. You can feed every other day,( this goes for chemical and organics) at very weak amounts, but doing this may contribute to over watering, and for that I do not recommend feeding more than once a week. Some people feed 2 times a week using like ľ teaspoon per gallon of water.. Use 1/4 strength for first feeding and then go up to 1/2 strength from the 2nd feeding when using chemical nutrients. Itís very easy to overdo it. When using organics, depending on which one youíre using, I recommend using 1 teaspoon per gallon of water. When the plant gets bigger you can work your way up to using more nutrients when the plants get bigger.

    As for soil mixtures, there are a lot of different kinds of soilís out there. Using a rich soil mixture is not recommended for seedlings. Seedlings that are under 2 weeks of age you do not want to start them in rich soil, using a seed starter mixture is one of the safer ways. Seed starter mixtures are weak in nutrients, so it will not burn the seedlings but will provide them enough to get past seedling stage, but the downside is you have to transplant into a better soil mixture after 2 weeks of age. If you decide to start with this mixture, do not put your seedlings into a big pot. Start them out with using a cup or a small pot.

    Nutrient Burn causes leaf tips to appear yellow or burnt. They can also be brown and twisted and crispy looking. Depending on the severity it can show many different symptoms and shows on lower part of the plant when its young, at older stages it can move anywhere on the plant.

    To fix the problem when you have Nutrient burn, you want to flush out the plants with lots of water.


    Soil

    Soil should be flushed with lots of water, Use 3 gallons of water per one gallon of soil. Flush very thoroughly, after plant recovers usually after a week, you can resume using nutrients after a week or a week 1/2. When you flush your soil, you flush everything out, a lot of nutrients go with it, including the soil nutrients.



    Hydro

    Change out the reservoir, flush out any lines and clean out the entire system and replace with plain water for the first hour, then start out with lower parts per million (PPM)
    Its good to clean out your system every 2 weeks and replace with fresh water and nutrients. Some people change everything every week!


    Ahh, nute burn! Stop this by not adding to much chemical/organic nutrients to your water,foliar feeding. DONT feed more than 1 time a week unless using weak amount, use 1/4 strength for first feeding and then go up to 1/2 strength from then on when using chemical nutrients. Its very easy to overdo it. Causes leaf tips to appear yellow or burnt. NEVER give nutrients to plants that are under 2 weeks of age, at this age the soil nutrients are enough to suppliment them untill 2 weeks of age or more depending on how good your soil is. Using ferts before 2 weeks will almost likley kill your plants.

    Pictures below show nutrient burn
    (photo 1 credit: Hansi)
    50.jpg 51.jpg

    Picture 3 shows recovery of nutrient burn
    (Photo Credit: The King Of New York)

    52.jpg
    "There he goes. One of God's own prototypes. A high-powered mutant of some kind never even considered for mass production. Too weird to live, and too rare to die." Hunter S. Thompson
    Overgrow Original | Sp3cialSt3v3420 | 2001 - 2006 | Overgrow The World
    TSD OG 2011-2013 | Hippie420 | Former Forums Manager

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